How can I tell if I am overweight? What are the diseases that fat people are prone to? — This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

At present, Body Mass Index (BMI) is the most widely utilized gauge in determining whether a person is overweight or obese. For a long, long time, experts used standard sex and age-adjusted height and weight tables to estimate a person’s “ideal” body weight, but in 1985, the US National Institute of Health recommended BMI to measure obesity because it is a more accurate estimate of a person’s body fat than the traditional tables. In 1997, the World Health Organization jumped on the BMI bandwagon.

How to compute and interpret BMI

You can compute for your BMI by dividing your weight (in kilograms) with the square of your height (in meters). BMI cut-off values vary from country to country. For adult Filipinos and Southeast Asians, they are as follows: Underweight – BMI of less than 18.5; Normal – BMI of 18.5 to 22.9; Over-weight or Pre-obese – BMI of 23 to 24.9; Class I obese – BMI of 25 to 29.9; and Class II obese – BMI of 30 or higher

Limitations of BMI

BMI is a reasonable indicator of body fat, but many experts do not recommend its use as a diagnostic tool. That’s because BMI doesn’t distinguish between fat and muscle—the weighing scale needle moves for both. Broad-framed and muscular people, including athletes, are often labeled overweight by BMI calculations. Yet, they do not have the level of body fat that will threaten their health. BMI also underestimates the threat for people who are skinny but have big bellies. Researches show that belly fat is in fact more dangerous for health than excess fat elsewhere in the body.

Results of a study published in the journal Frontiers in Public Health showed that using BMI as the lone measure for obesity missed 50 percent of cases of people who had what was determined to be the amount of fat that could be dangerous to their health.

fat1

If BMI is not a reliable measure of body fat, what is?

There are more exact ways to measure obesity, but they can be expensive. The DEXA (Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry) Scan estimates lean tissue, bone, mineral, and fat across regions of the body with amazing accuracy, but it uses x-rays. Another accurate method is with the use of a machine for a bioelectrical impedance analysis, which runs an electric current through body tissue to determine fat composition. The Mayo Clinic meanwhile uses a Bod Pod, which takes measurements based on body volume.

How much body fat is allowable and why is excess fat bad?

On the average, fat accounts for only 14 to 17 percent of the body weight of physically fit male adults and 21 to 24 percent of the body weight of physically fit female adults. Males are obese if fat represents 25 percent or higher and females 32 percent or higher of their body weight.

Excess body fat entails numerous health risks. In fact, obesity is the single greatest contributor to chronic disease and it increases one’s risk of dying prematurely by two to three times. It contributes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, high blood levels of cholesterol, gallbladder disease, sexual and reproductive problems, sleep apnea and respiratory problems, osteoarthritis, and some cancers.

Obesity also impairs a person’s quality of life. Excess weight stresses the body’s joints particularly the hips, knees, and ankles, which results in or aggravates osteoarthritis. Excess weight is also a common cause of low back pain and is a predisposing factor to the development of varicose veins.

Practical ways to tell whether you have excess body fat

There are actually practical and fairly accurate ways to find out if you are fat or not. Measure your waist circumference at your belly button. If it is half your height or less, you are healthy, otherwise, you are fat. Alternately, look at your hip to waist ratio. If your waist is bigger than your hips, you are in trouble.

Email inquiries on health matters to: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 

Written by: Eduardo Gonzales, MD

Source: https://lifestyle.mb.com.ph/2017/10/03/am-i-fat/ 

The rainy season brings about that tempting, lazy bed weather. People become less motivated to exercise. Why don’t you ladies spice up your weekend by planning a wellness party from scratch? It will not only bring out the fun and laughter but will also make you feel more energetic and beautiful. Working out with friends is always a good idea because it won’t feel like you’re exercising at all.

Begin by choosing an activity that you ladies will enjoy. It could be high intensity zumba or a calming yoga practice, whatever suits your preference or lifestyle. You have an option to hire a professional or play videos to guide your group throughout the workout.

Next comes the hydration and nourishment part, post workout. Toss the usual fruit, protein shake, or peanut butter sandwich you’re so used to having in the gym. After all, this is a party!

It’s unwise to drink alcohol post workout. Instead, serve any delightful non-alcoholic drink that will give you that fizz. I like May 100% Sparkling Grape Juice from Belgium or I combine sparkling water with Welch’s 100 % grape fruit juice. Have a drink or two of this wine substitute and hydrate yourself more with lots of fruit and vegetable infused water afterward.

Refuel yourselves with carbs, protein, good fats, and fiber. Here are two easy peasy recipes created by Doña Elena Olive Oil that will guarantee your guests to eat healthily and pleasurably post workout.

wellness party1

Shrimp Puttanesca Rice Bowl with Capers & Tomatoes

Ingredients:

1 tbsp.pure olive oil

3 cloves garlic, minced

3 fillets anchovies, chopped

¼ tsp.red pepper flakes

800g diced tomatoes

2 tbsp.capers, drained

¼ cup sliced black olives

1 lb.shrimp, shelled and deveined

¼ cup Italian parsley, minced

2 cups white rice, cooked

Procedure:

  1. Heat pure olive oil in a large skillet set over medium heat.
  2. Add garlic, anchovy fillets, and red pepper flakes. Break anchovies using a wooden spoon. Cook for two minutes.
  3. Add diced tomatoes, capers, and sliced black olives. Bring to a boil, then simmer for 10 to 15 minutes or until the sauce slightly thickens
  4. Add shrimp and simmer until just cooked through, turning partway through, about three minutes. Stir in the parsley.
  5. Divide rice between four bowls. Top each portion with ¼ of the shrimp puttanesca.

wellness party2

Fusilli with Anchovy Caper Sauce

Ingredients:

1 pack Fusilli pasta, cooked
8 fillets anchovies, mashed
1/2 stickbutter
1 tbsp.pure olive oil
1/2 pc.white onion, thinly sliced
2 tbsp.capers, drained
1 cup cherry tomatoes, cut in half
1/2 pc.lemon, juiced
1/2 cup parsley, chopped
1/2 tsp. dry tarragon
1 clove garlic, thinly sliced
salt and pepper to taste
pasta water (from boiling pasta)
extra virgin olive oil

Procedure:

  1. Heat pan to medium low. Add a drizzle of pure olive oil and butter. When butter melts, add onion, garlic, 1/2 the parsley (set aside other 1/2 of it for topping), tarragon and mashed anchovies and combine. (If using fillets, add them first and allow them to break apart in the butter before adding onions, garlic, and herbs.) Cover and cook until onions become somewhat soft.
  2. Add capers, cherry tomatoes, pepper, and about 1/2 teaspoon salt, continue cooking uncovered.
  3. When the sauce begins to thicken, squeeze a little lemon juice on it and add a ladle of starchy pasta water from the pot and stir it in.
  4. Stir in the cooked fusilli pasta and drizzle of extra virgin olive oil. Sprinkle the remaining parsley, then toss until well combined.

After that exhilarating and gastronomic wellness party, don’t let your friends leave without taking home something that will make them remember their experience. A party is never complete without party favors, which, in my opinion, is like the cherry on top of the ice cream.

Prepare a beauty and wellness kit, each labeled with your guest’s name. You can get creatively feminine with the contents. It’s always best to give stuff that you yourself have tried. I’d throw in a good moisturizer like Jergens Hydrating Coconut Dry Skin Moisturizer; include a handy perfumed Caronia Hand Sanitizer which kills germs and moisturizes the skin; and add something that will help my friends stay fresh and odor free, all day everyday like the Jeunesse Anion Sanitary panty liners. You can add more health and beauty products depending on your preference and budget.

What are you waiting for? Gather around ladies! It’s time to plan your wellness party.

This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.; www.cheshireque.com; 

Instagram/@cheshirequerdn   

 Source: https://lifestyle.mb.com.ph/2017/10/03/your-guide-to-a-diy-wellness-party/ 

Written by: Cheshire Que, RND, RN, RD

A new study reveals that our body mass index interacts with our appreciation of food characteristics

Date:
September 22, 2017
Source:
Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati
Summary:
A new study demonstrated that people of normal weight tend to associate natural foods such as apples with their sensory characteristics. On the other hand, processed foods such as pizzas are generally associated with their function or the context in which they are eaten. But that's not all. The research also highlighted the ways in which underweight people pay greater attention to natural foods and overweight people to processed foods.

A new study demonstrated that people of normal weight tend to associate natural foods such as apples with their sensory characteristics. On the other hand, processed foods such as pizzas are generally associated with their function or the context in which they are eaten.

"It can be considered an instance of 'embodiment' in which our brain interacts with our body." This is the comment made by Raffaella Rumiati, neuroscientist at the International School for Advanced Studies -- SISSA in Trieste, on the results of research carried out by her group which reveals that the way we process different foods changes in accordance with our body mass index. With two behavioural and electroencephalographic experiments, the study demonstrated that people of normal weight tend to associate natural foods such as apples with their sensory characteristics such as sweetness or softness.

On the other hand, processed foods such as pizzas are generally associated with their function or the context in which they are eaten such as parties or picnics.

"The results are in line with the theory according to which sensory characteristics and the functions of items are processed differently by the brain," comments Giulio Pergola, the work's primary author. "They represent an important step forward in our understanding of the mechanisms at the basis of the assessments we make of food." But that's not all.

Recently published in the Biological Psychology journal, the research also highlighted the ways in which underweight people pay greater attention to natural foods and overweight people to processed foods. Even when subjected to the same stimuli, these two groups show different electroencephalography signals. These results show once again the importance of cognitive neuroscience also in the understanding of extremely topical clinical fields such as dietary disorders.

Story Source:

Materials provided by Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi AvanzatiNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Giulio Pergola, Francesco Foroni, Paola Mengotti, Georgette Argiris, Raffaella Ida Rumiati. A neural signature of food semantics is associated with body-mass indexBiological Psychology, 2017; DOI: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2017.09.001
 
 

Here's how you can prevent getting dengue, leptospirosis, cholera, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and influenza

All graphics by Raffy de Guzman/Rappler
     

 

All graphics by Raffy de Guzman/Rappler

 

MANILA, Philippines – There are several common diseases to watch out for during the rainy season. The Department of Health (DOH) has issued advisories to help Filipinos prevent getting sick during this time.

The common diseases during the rainy season include dengue, leptospirosis, cholera, hepatitis A, typhoid fever, and influenza.

 

“Typhoons and heavy rains may cause flooding which, in turn, can potentially increase the transmission of water-borne diseases, or diseases transmitted through water contaminated with human or animal waste,” said DOH in an advisory.

Generally, the public is advised maintain proper hygiene. The DOH said the public must drink clean water only.

“When in doubt, it is a must to wait for two minutes or longer when the water reaches a rolling boil, or chlorinate drinking water to make it safe,” said the DOH.

Food must be properly cooked, while waste should be disposed of properly. The DOH said Filipinos must wash their hands properly before and after eating as well as after using the toilet.

“When sick, consult a doctor or go to the nearest health facility at once if you, or any household member, have any sign or symptom of infection,” said the DOH.

The public is also discouraged from wading or swimming in flood waters.

Listed below are the 6 common diseases during the rainy season, their signs and symptoms, treatment, and how to avoid them:

Dengue

 

     

 

  What is it?

An acute infectious disease caused by a bite of the aedes aegypti day-biting mosquito, which lays eggs in clear and stagnant water

Signs and symptoms:

  • Sudden onset of high fever which may last two to 7 days
  • Joint and muscle pain
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Weakness
  • Skin rashes – maculopapular rash or red tiny spots on the skin called petechiae
  • Nose-bleeding when fever starts to subside
  • Abdominal pain
  • Vomiting of coffee-colored matter
  • Dark-colored stools

Treatment:

  • There is no known cure to dengue. The treatment depends on what symptoms the patient is manifesting. Once you notice signs of dengue, immediately go to your doctor. Dengue patients are advise to drink lots of fluid to manage the disease.
  • Healthy individuals aged 9 to 45 may take the dengue vaccine to avoid the disease.

How do I prevent it?

  • Cover water drums or pails at all times to prevent mosquitoes from breeding.
  • Replace water in flower vases once a week.
  • Clean all water containers once a week. Scrub the sides well to remove eggs of mosquitoes sticking to the sides.
  • Clean gutters of leaves and debris so that rain water will not collect as breeding places of mosquitoes.
  • Old tires used as roof support should be punctured or cut to avoid accumulation of water.
  • Collect and dispose all unusable tin cans, jars, bottles and other items that can collect and hold water.

Leptospirosis

 

     

 

 What is it?

A disease caused by the entry of the leptospira bacteria through wounds when in contact with flood waters, vegetation, and most soil contaminated by the urine of infected animals, especially rats. Has an incubation period of 7 to 10 days.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Non-specific symptoms of muscle pain, headache
  • Calf-muscle pain and reddish eyes for some cases
  • For severe cases, liver involvement, kidney failure or brain involvement indicated by yellowish body discoloration, dark-colored urine and light stools, low urine output, severe headache

Treatment:

  • Take antibiotics prescribed by your doctor.
  • Consult your doctor early because early recognition and treatment of leptospirosis will prevent complications from the disease.

How do I prevent it?

  • Avoid swimming or wading in potentially contaminated water.
  • Use proper protection like boots and gloves when work requires exposure to contaminated water.
  • Drain potentially contaminated water when possible.
  • Control rats in the household by using rat traps or rat poison. Keep your house clean.

Cholera

 

     

 

What is it?

A disease caused by the vibrio cholerae bacteria, transmitted by eating food or consuming water contaminated with human waste

Signs and symptoms:

  • Sudden onset of frequent painless watery stools
  • Vomiting
  • Rapid dehydration like sunken eyeballs, wrinkled and dry skin

Treatment:

  • Replace lost body fluid by giving Oral Rehydration Solution (ORESOL) or a homemade solution composed of one teaspoon of salt, 4 teaspoons of sugar mixed with one liter of water.
  • If diarrhea persists, go to the hospital

How do I prevent it?

  • Drink only safe and clean water. If unsure, boil drinking water. Upon reaching boiling point, extend boiling for two or more minutes.
  • Do water chlorination.
  • Keep food away from insects and rats.
  • Wash and cook food properly.
  • Sanitary disposal of human waste
  • Use toilet properly and clean toilet every day.
  • Wash hands with soap after using the toilet and before eating.
  • Keep surroundings clean to prevent flies and other insects and rodents from breeding.

Hepatitis A

 

     

 

 What is it?

A disease caused by eating food contaminated with human waste and the urine of persons who ares sick with hepatitis A

Signs and symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Flu-like symptoms like weakness, muscle and joint aches, loss of appetite, dizziness with or without vomiting
  • Abdominal discomfort
  • Jaundice may follow after a few days

Treatment

  • No specific medicine to cure the patient or shorten the course of illness. Infected patients must be isolated, advised to rest, take plenty of fluids,and avoid fatty foods.
  • Patients who fail to take fluids or are too weak to eat are sometimes admitted to the hospital for intravaneous administration of fluids and vitamins.

How do I prevent it?

  • Wash hands after using the toilet, before preparing food, and before eating
  • Dispose human waste properly.
  • Thoroughly cook oysters, clams, other shellfish for 4 minutes or steam them for one minute and 30 seconds.
  • Practice safe handling and storage of food and water.
  • The disease is self-limiting and may last for one to 2 weeks. Patient often recovers even without treatment.

Typhoid fever

 

     

 

  What is it?

A disease caused by the salmonella typhi bacteria, transmitted by consuming food and water contaminated with human waste

Signs and symptoms:

  • Sustained high fever
  • Headache
  • Malaise or weakness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Diarrhea or constipation and abdominal discomfort

Treatment:

  • Take antibiotics duly prescribed by your dog.
  • Treatment varies depending on the symptoms of the patient.
  • Get the vaccine to avoid getting the disease.

How do I prevent it?

  • Boil water for drinking. Upon reaching boiling point, extend boiling for two or more minutes.
  • Do water chlorination
  • Cook food well and always use food cover to prevent flies and other insects from contaminating them.
  • Wash thoroughly all vegetables and fruits especially those that are eaten raw.
  • Avoid eating foods sold by street vendors.
  • Wash hands with soap and water after using the toilet and before eating.
  • Keep surroundings clean to prevent breeding of flies.

Influenza

 

     

 

 What is it?

A disease caused by the entry of the influenza A, B, or C virus into the respiratory tract, has an incubation period of one to 3 days.

Signs and symptoms:

  • Fever of at least 38 degrees Celsius
  • Headache
  • Runny nose, sore throat, cough, or other respiratory manifestations
  • Muscle or joint pains

Treatment:

  • Use of antiviral agents within the first two days may halt the course of influenza illness. Consult your physician regarding antiviral agents.
  • Paracetamol for fever. Do not give aspirin to children.
  • Antibiotics to be given only due to complications of influenza such as pneumonia or otitis media.
  • Adequate rest
  • Increase intake of oral fluids and eat nutritious foods

How do I prevent it?

  • Influenza vaccination preferably to be given anytime from February to June.
  • Provide separate room to a person sick with influenza.
  • Cover mouth and nose when sneezing or coughing to prevent spread of the virus.
  • Avoid crowded places. Distance yourself from at least meter from people who are coughing or are sick with influenza.
  • Wash hands frequently with soap and water.

 

Source:– Rappler.com - https://www.rappler.com/nation/183043-doh-tips-common-rainy-season-diseases-prevention 

Date: September 22, 2017

Source: NICM, Western Sydney University

Summary: New research has confirmed that smartphone apps are an effective treatment option for depression, paving the way for safe and accessible interventions for the                     millions of people around the world diagnosed with this condition.

New Australian-led research has confirmed that smartphone apps are an effective treatment option for depression, paving the way for safe and accessible interventions for the millions of people around the world diagnosed with this condition.

Depression is the most prevalent mental disorder and a leading cause of global disability, with mental health services worldwide struggling to meet the demand for treatment.

In an effort to tackle this rising challenge, researchers from Australia's National Institute of Complementary Medicine (NICM), Harvard Medical School, The University of Manchester, and the Black Dog Institute in Australia examined the efficacy of smartphone-based treatments for depression.

The researchers systematically reviewed 18 randomised controlled trials which examined a total of 22 different smartphone-delivered mental health interventions.

The studies involved more than 3400 male and female participants between the ages of 18-59 with a range of mental health symptoms and conditions including major depression, mild to moderate depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety and insomnia.

The first of its kind research, published today in World Psychiatryfound that overall smartphone apps significantly reduced people's depressive symptoms, suggesting these new digital therapies can be useful for managing the condition.

Lead author of the paper, NICM postdoctoral research fellow Joseph Firth says this was an important finding which presented a new opportunity for providing accessible and affordable care for patients who might not otherwise have access to treatment.

"The majority of people in developed countries own smartphones, including younger people who are increasingly affected by depression," said Mr Firth.

"Combined with the rapid technological advances in this area, these devices may ultimately be capable of providing instantly accessible and highly effective treatments for depression, reducing the societal and economic burden of this condition worldwide."

Co-author, NICM deputy director, Professor Jerome Sarris highlighted the importance of the findings for opening up non-stigmatising and self-managing avenues of care.

"The data shows us that smartphones can help people monitor, understand and manage their own mental health. Using apps as part of an 'integrative medicine' approach for depression has been demonstrated to be particularly useful for improving mood and tackling symptoms in these patients," said Professor Sarris.

When it comes to the question of "Which app is best?" and "For who?," the results suggested these interventions so far may be most applicable to those with mild to moderate depression, as the benefits in major depression have not been widely studied as of yet.

The researchers found no difference in apps which apply principles of mindfulness compared to cognitive behavioural therapy or mood monitoring programs.

However, interventions that used entirely 'self-contained' apps -- meaning the app did not reply on other aspects such as clinician and computer feedback -- were found to be significantly more effective than 'non-self-contained' apps.

The authors suggested this might be due to the comprehensiveness of these particular stand-alone apps rather than the combination of therapies.

Despite the promising early results, there is currently no evidence to suggest that using apps alone can outperform standard psychological therapies, or reduce the need for antidepressant medications.

According to co-author and co-director of the digital psychiatry program at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and a clinical fellow in the department of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, Dr John Torous, the research is a timely and promising step forward in the use of smartphones in mental health.

"Patients and doctors are faced with a vast array of mental health apps these days, and knowing which ones are actually helpful is imperative," said Dr Torous.

"This research provides much needed information on the effectiveness of apps for depression, and offers important clues into the types of apps which can help patients manage their condition."

Jennifer Nicholas, a PhD Candidate at Black Dog Institute and co-author of the paper says with the knowledge that apps can be effective for managing depression, future research must now investigate which features produce these beneficial effects.

"Given the multitude of apps available -- many of them unregulated -- it's critical that we now unlock which specific app attributes reap the greatest benefits, to help ensure that all apps available to people with depression are effective."

###

The paper, "The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials" is available online at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/wps.20472/full

.

 

Story Source:

Materials provided by NICM, Western Sydney UniversityNote: Content may be edited for style and length.


Journal Reference:

  1. Joseph Firth, John Torous, Jennifer Nicholas, Rebekah Carney, Abhishek Pratap, Simon Rosenbaum, Jerome Sarris. The efficacy of smartphone-based mental health interventions for depressive symptoms: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trialsWorld Psychiatry, 2017; 16 (3): 287 DOI: 10.1002/wps.20472

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